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A JUDGMENT ON HISTORY—THE WAR       15

industry The " boutgeoization" of man on
the one hand and his "proletarianization" on
the other have been fatal fot personality, for
individual existence. Capitalism is above all anti-
personal, the power of anonymity over human
life. Capitalism uses man as goods for sale.
Everyone agrees that the war was a revelation
of a non-brotherly, non-social attitude among
men, .that it revealed a terrible lack of inner unity,
even in the presence of external comradeship
and iron discipline. But even without the world
war, the bourgeois-capitalist world was a denial
of all brotherhood, generality and unity among
men. " Man is a wolf to man." The life of the
capitalist world is lupine. The war disclosed a
complete absence of solidarity and union among
men, save the bonds enforced by the discipline
of the barracks. It revealed the superficiality of
the process of humanization and how thin was
the layer of human society which had been really
affected by humanizing forces. In the world war
and since, there have been active monstrous>
otganized collectives, beneath which trembles
chaos. The war was already a judgment upon
history, an immanent judgment upon history
itself. It utterly destroyed all illusions: it was
a colossal disillusionment in the idealistic under-
standing not only of history, but of all high
ideals.